Essay about Human Values and Ethics versus Philisophical Ethics
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Human Values and Ethics versus Philisophical Ethics
They had discussed it, but not deeply, whether they wanted the baby she was now carrying. I don't know if I want it, she said, eyes filling with tears. She cried at anything now, and was often nauseous. That pregnant women cried easily and were nauseous seemed banal to her, and she resented banality" (p. 389 Alice Walker The Abortion). It could sound familiar to many of us. Either in personal life or while discussing and debating, whether during college courses or encircled by close friends, I am sure that each and everyone of us has come across with the issue of abortion, developing a distinct, individual opinion about that particular subject. What we think about abortion will…show more content…
Not only through some historical periods, but during the twentieth century it continued to happen. Even here, in the United States, in 1969, most state laws prohibited abortion, unless the life of the pregnant woman was threatened. In the mid-1960s, the estimated death rate for abortions performed in hospitals was 3 deaths per 100,000 abortions; the rate for illegal abortions was guessed to be over eight times higher than that -- 30 deaths per 100,000 abortions was a rough estimate and almost certainly conservative. For minority and poorer women, it was certainly very much higher (statistics are taken from "Moral Revolution" by Kathryn Pyne Addelson, from Twenty Questions: . . .). My point is that "abortions will surely continue, as they have through human history, whether we approve or disapprove or hem and haw" (Barbara Ehrenreich, Is Abortion Really a "Moral" Dilemma? p. 425 Twenty Questions: . . .) Therefore, it is much better for abortions to take place legally and under proper medical supervision. I think that here, a person committed to utilitarian ethical theory would agree with me because according to my conclusion it would produce more amount of good for the greater number of people -- by doing abortions legally, more women could afford it and less of them would die. As a result of my little discussion, I believe that performing abortions should remain
Workplace values and ethics are established at the helm of the organization. Values and ethics define what the company perceives as important regarding the behavior of everyone from the top-level executive to the employees working with consumers. Companies, large and small, find themselves in public relations nightmares when ethical lines are crossed. The most problematic areas are fraud, discrimination and sexual misconduct.
Defining an Organization's Values and Ethics
The values and ethics of a business are the moral code by which the business operates. While no business can control the actions of every employee, it can define expectations and develop procedures for violations. Many organizations have similar areas of focus when it comes to values and ethics. These include but aren't limited to honesty, accountability, respect, caring and reliability. Values and ethics should be defined in an organization's bylaws, mission statement, vision statement and policies.
Internal Business Practices
When it comes to internal business practices, values and ethics refer to the expectations among employees. These practices apply to both manager/subordinate relationships and co-worker interactions. People who work together often develop friendships, but co-workers can also develop negative feelings about others on the team.
Internal business practices must define appropriate and acceptable behavior. Some companies explicitly forbid dating among co-workers. Other companies have policies that prohibit alcohol at any company party or internal function. These rules are designed to avert potential problems.
Some employers hold mandatory diversity or sexual harassment training to educate employees on the most common types of inappropriate behavior. Education and coaching policies are growing as pre-emptive actions.
Should problems arise, protocol must be outlined to deal with it. A company's values might dictate the amount of tolerance regarding inappropriate behavior. Where one company may have a series of warnings, additional training and support, another company might set hard lines where disciplinary action is swift and often severe.
Consumers are affected by how an organization presents itself and its people daily. This often starts with initial contact with consumers. The way a receptionist answers the phone at a law firm sets the tone for clients. The law firm might value old-fashioned respect and insist clients be referred to by last name as "Mr. Jones" rather than "John," for example.
Values might start with small items like how to answer a phone, but they permeate into everything a company does. Honesty and integrity are values touted by companies far and wide, but not every company stands behind its words. For example, when a company has a "no questions asked guarantee" that it honors, the company builds consumer confidence.
Advertising Values and Ethics
Advertising has one job, which is to get consumers in the door (or to the website) of a business. There are a lot of tactics advertising can use to achieve this. Companies that stand by their values and ethics don't allow misleading advertising. Other ways that businesses draw the line is with content. For example, a commercial that offers a gift with purchase needs to be clear on how the gift is given and whether a minimum purchase or shipping and handling fees are required. It is up to the company to demonstrate its ethics in advertising decisions.
About the Author
With more than 15 years of professional writing experience, Kimberlee finds it fun to take technical mumbo-jumbo and make it fun! Her first career was in financial services and insurance.
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