Ellis Peters Bibliography Generator

Overview of MLA 8 Format

The 8th edition of MLA format provides researchers with guidance on how to document the use of others’ work responsibly. Published in April 2016, the new handbook illustrates examples of citations made in the revised style, and explains how to create two types of citations: full citations that are placed in a works cited list, and in-text citations, which are abbreviated versions of full citations and located in the body of the work.

For a visual guide to MLA 8 citations, see our infographic.

For a PDF guide to general MLA 8 guidelines,click here.

MLA 8th Edition: What’s New?

With the new MLA citation format, a major change was made to how full citations are created and how MLA works cited pages are formatted. Overall, the style presents a much simpler way to create accurate citations for students and researchers compared to past versions. Let’s take a look at the major changes:

1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type

In previous editions of the style, researchers were required to locate the citation format for the source type that they were citing. For instance, if they were trying to cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to find and reference the rules for citing journals. This has become inefficient in modern writing, however, as we are digesting information from a more broad variety of sources than ever before. With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for writers to create citation formats for every source type. To address this, there is now one universal format that  can be used to create citations, which is displayed in MLA 8.

To properly use this new format, the researcher is required to locate the “Core Elements” of each source used in their paper. These “core elements” are what make up the information that will populate each citation. These pieces of information can also be found in the forms in the MLA citation generator.

The “Core Elements” of a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the following:

  1. Authors.
  2. Title of the source.
  3. Title of container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Numbers,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date,
  9. Location.

The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the final piece. In that situation, the punctuation mark should always be a period.

These core elements are then placed within the citation, and generally follow this format:

Author. Title. Title of the container. Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher’s name, Date of publication, Location

Here is an example of how an actual citation (in this case, for a book) looks when written using the 8th edition style:

Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. Simon & Schuster, 2012.

For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the MLA citation maker on EasyBib.com.

2. Inclusion of “containers” in citations

When the source you are referencing is actually a small part of a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the larger source is called the “container,” as it “contains” the smaller source. Generally, the container is italicized and is followed by a comma. For more details on this, see the examples below. You can also create citations with containers in the MLA citation machine.

MLA citation format for citing a title within a container might look as follows:

Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. “Title of Source.” Container Title, Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers.

Here is an example full citation of how to cite a book chapter using the 8th edition format:

Uenten, Wesley Iwao. “Rising Up from a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in U.S. Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific, edited by Setsu Shigematsu and Keith L. Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp. 91-124.

3. The ability to use pseudonyms for author names

In order to more efficiently create accurate citations for new source types, it is now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in place of authors’ names.

Formula:

@TwitterHandle. “Content of Tweet.” Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://).

Example:

@realDonaldTrump. “I will be having a general news conference on JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C. Thank you.” Twitter, 3 Jan. 2017, 6:58 p.m., twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312

4. Adding the abbreviations vol. and no. to magazine and journal article citations

In previous versions of the style, there was no indication that the numbers in periodical citations referred to the volume and issue numbers. This has changed in the 8th edition to be clearer to the reader.

Example in MLA 7:

O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49. Print.

Example in MLA 8:

O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics, vol. 30, no. 2, 2011, pp. 48-49.

5. Inclusion of URLS

Unlike previous editions, the inclusion of URLs in citations is highly recommended by the 8th edition.

Omit “http://” or “https://” from the URL when including it in a citation.

6. Omitting the city of publication

In previous versions of the citation style, researchers included the city where the publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and the city of publication can often be omitted.

It is suggested that you include the city of publication if the version of the source differs when published in a different country (example: British editions of books versus versions printed in the United States).

7. Flexibility in citation formatting

In addition to one universal format for all source types, the 8th edition now allows for more flexibility in citation presentation than previous versions of the style. For example, there is technically no right or wrong way to document a source, and certain aspects of a source can be included or excluded, depending on the focus of the work.

For example, if you are citing the movie, Casablanca, and your research project focuses on the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to your reader for you to include the name of the actor, Humphrey Bogart, in your citation. Other writers who instead focus on the whole movie in their paper may elect to just include the name of the director in their works cited page.

To create the best and most effective citations, you always should think about which pieces of information will help readers easily locate the source you referenced themselves, should they wish to do so.

More on MLA 8.

8th Edition: Formatting Guidelines

Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the guidelines specified in the 8th edition. If you were told to create your citations in this format, your the rest of your paper should be formatted using the new MLA guidelines as well.  

General guidelines:

  1. Use white 8 ½  x 11” paper.
  2. Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides
  3. The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch.
  4. Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin
  5. Use any type of font that is easy to read, such as Times New Roman. Make sure that italics look different from the regular typeface
  6. Use 12 point size
  7. Double space the entire research paper, even the works cited page.
  8. Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces.
  9. You can either create a title page usingEasyBib’s Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and use a header.

To create a MLA header, follow these steps:

  • Begin one inch from the top of the first page and flush with the left margin.
  • Type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, using double spaces between each.
  • Double space once more and center the title. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in all capital letters. Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text. Example: Character Development in The Great Gatsby.
  • Do not place a period after the title or after any heading.
  • Double space between the title and first lines of the text.

Example:

Page Numbers

  • Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top, flush with the right margin.
  • Type your last name before the page number. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the last name and page number to each page).
  • Do not place p. before the page number.
  • Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. Ask your instructor for their specific preferences.

Example:

Tables and Illustrations

  • Should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to.
  • Label tables with: “Table,” an arabic numeral, and create a title for it.
    • This information should be located above the table, flush left, on separate lines.
    • Format the title the same way as the title of the paper.
    • Underneath the table, provide the source and any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is able to differentiate between the notes of the text and the notes of the table.
    • Use double spacing throughout.
    • Label illustrations with: Fig. (short for figure), assign an arabic number, and provide a caption.
      • The label and caption should appear underneath the illustration.
      • **If the table or illustration’s caption gives complete information about the source and the source isn’t cited in the text, there is no need to include the citation in the works cited page.
  • Label musical scores with: Ex. (short for Example), assign it an Arabic numeral, and provide a caption.
    • The label and caption should appear below the musical illustration.

Use of Numerals

The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out if the number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the number itself.

Examples:

One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ½, 101

If the project calls for frequent use of numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements.

Examples:

247 milligrams, 5 pounds

Here are some other formatting tips to keep in mind:

  • Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the number.
  • Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex. 6 lbs.
  • In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the study

8th Edition: Works Cited Lists

The purpose of an MLA works cited list is to display the sources that were used for a project, and to give credit to the original authors of the works that were consulted for a project. Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project. Citations are what make up a works cited list.

Here are some tips on how to create a works cited list for your citations:

  • Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation, which is typically the last name of the author.
  • Each citation should have a hanging indent.

When there are two or more sources with the same author, only include the author’s name in the first citation. In the second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in place of the author’s name, followed by a period.

Example:

Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007.

– – -. Colonial America. Oxford UP, 1999.

If the author is listed along with another author, type out the full name of each author, do not use the hyphens and periods.

Example:

Sparks, Nicholas. The Notebook. Warner, 1996.

—. A Walk to Remember. Warner, 1999.

Two or more works by the same author:

Example:

Rosenthal, Amy Krouse, and Tom Lichtenheld. Duck! Rabbit! San Francisco: Chronicle, 2009.

—. Exclamation Mark! Scholastic, 2013.

  • The Works Cited list typically appears at the end of a paper.
  • Make the Works Cited page the next consecutive page number. If the last page of your project is page 12, the Works Cited list will be page 13.
  • An annotated bibliography is different than a Works Cited list. An annotated bibliography includes brief summaries and evaluations of the sources.
  • Use one-inch margins around the page. Double-space the entire document.
  • Place the title of the page (Works Cited) in the center of the page, an inch from the top.
  • Create a double space between the title (Works Cited) and the first citation.
  • Each citation should start on the left margin (one inch from the side of the paper).

Example of a Works Cited List:

Connell, James. “The Battle of Yorktown: What Don’t We Know?” The American History Journal, vol. 19, no. 6, 2005, pp. 36-43.

Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007.

– – -. Colonial America. Oxford UP, 1999.

The Patriot. Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and Heath Ledger. Columbia Pictures, 2002.

8th Edition: Formatting “Core Elements”

Formatting: Titles

The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the formatting of titles within citations. Here are some of the rules pertaining to titles in the new MLA format:

How to Format Book Titles:

When citing book titles, always enter the full title, in italics, followed by a period.  

See the MLA format citation below:

Last Name, First Name. Italicized Title. Publisher, Publication Year.

Click here for additional information on book titles.

How to Format Periodical Titles:

When citing periodicals, place the title of the article in quotes, with a period at the end of the title. The italicized title of the periodical follows, along with a comma.

An MLA format example is below:

Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article.” Periodical Title.” Publication Year, Page Numbers.

How to Format Website Titles:

When citing a website, the title of the webpage or article is placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the website is written in italics followed by a comma. If the name of the publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the title. Immediately following the publisher is the date that the page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the URL. The URL is the website’s address.

The citation format is as follows:

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.

Click here for additional information on website titles.

Formatting: Authors

Giving credit to the author of works that you use in your research paper is not only important for citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism. In order to include the author’s name in your citation, follow the guidelines listed below:

One Author:

Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg.

Citation example:

Olsen, Gregg. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children. St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22.

Two Authors:

Place the authors in the order in which they appear on the source. Note that only the lead author’s name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by their first name, middle initial if applicable, and then last name:

Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske.

Citation example:

Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: UP, 2007.

Three or More Authors:

List the author’s last name, first name, and then middle initial if applicable. Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in place of the additional authors:

Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al.

Citation example:

George, Michael L., et al. The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook. McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Individuals Other Than an Author:

In cases where the person responsible for creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the individual’s role after the name:

Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and Mark Turin, editors.  

When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the name and role of the person on whom you’ve focused:

Byrne, Rose, performer.

*Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on an individual’s role, omit the author’s name and start the citation with the title.

If a corporation is the author of the text, include the full name of the corporation:

The American Heart Association.

Translated Works:

Treat the translator as the author. You should do this only if the focus of your paper is on the original translated work. Include the name of the original creator after the title, preceded by the word “By”:

Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator.
Citation example:

Rabassa, Gregory, translator. One Hundred Years of Solitude. By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995.

No Author:

When no author is given in a text, omit this section and start the citation with the title.

Formatting: Versions

Sources can be released in different versions, or forms. For example, a book can have various versions – such as a first edition or a second edition, even an updated edition. A movie can have an unrated or an uncut version. It is important to communicate to the reader which version was used to. This will help them locate the exact source themselves.

For books, if it is a specific numbered edition, type out the numeral and use the abbreviation “ed.” for edition.

If no specific version is mentioned or located, omit this information from the citation.

Examples of 8th edition citations for sources with various versions:

Weinberger, Norman M. “The Auditory System and Elements of Music” The Psychology of Music, edited by Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=A3jkobk4yMMC&lpg=PP1&dq=psychology&pg=PR6#v=onepage&q=psychology&f=false.

JFK. Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, director’s cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008.

Formatting: Dates

When including the date of publication, there aren’t any set rules to how the date should be input into the citation. For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016. What does matter is consistency. Whichever way the date is placed in one citation, the same format should be used in the other citations in your project.

Names of months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations.

Examples:

Jan., Sept., Nov.

In-Text Citations

Researchers place brief parenthetical descriptions to acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the last name of the author and the specific page numbers of the source. If such information is already given in the body of the sentence, then exclude it from the parenthetical citation.

When citing websites, just include the author’s last name and/or a shortened version of the webpage title.

Place the parenthetical citation where there is a pause in the sentence – normally before the end of a sentence or a comma. The in-text citation will differ depending on how much information you provide within the sentence.

Example in text citation:

(Author Last Page Number[s]).

(Rowling 19). Find out more here.

In-Text Citations with more than one author

If you use sources with the same author surnames, then include a first name initial. If the two sources have authors with the same initials, then include their full names.

Example:

(J. Johnson 12-13).

Or

(John Johnson 12-13).

If there are two or three authors of the source, include their last names in the order they appear on the source:

Example:

(Smith, Wollensky, and Johnson 45).

If there are more than three authors, you can cite all the authors with their last name, or you can cite the first author followed by “et al.” Follow what is shown the works cited list.

Example:

(Smith et al. 45).

In-Text Citations without an author

Some sources do not have authors or contributors—for instance, when you cite some websites. Instead, refer to the name of the source in your parenthetical citation in place of the author. Shorten/abbreviate the name of the source but ensure that your reader can easily identify it in your works cited (abbreviate the title starting with the same word in which it is alphabetized). Punctuate with quotations or italicize as you would in its works cited form (a book is italicized; an article is in quotes).

Examples:

Double agents are still widely in use (Spies 12-15, 17).

With prices of energy at new highs, bikes have been increasingly used (“Alternative Transportation” 89).

Citing Part of a Work in the text

When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page or section identifier. This can include specific pages, sections, paragraphs or volumes. When the identifier is preceded by an abbreviation or word, place a comma between the identifier and the source reference.

Article in a Periodical in the text

When citing a specific page(s) of a multivolume work, precede the page number by the volume number and a colon. Do not separate by a comma.

It was arguably the most innovative period in history (Webster 4:12-15).

Use “par.” or “pars.” when referring to specific paragraphs.

The marketing dollars of big studio films has overshadowed good indie movies (Anderson, pars. 12-34).

Citing Group or Corporate Authors in the text

In your parenthetical citation, cite a corporate author like you would a normal author. Preferably, incorporate the corporate author in your text instead of the parenthetical citation.

Facial transplants pose significant risk to the autoimmune system (American Medical Association 12-43).

As noted by the American Medical Association, facial transplants pose significant risk to the autoimmune system (12-43).

Citing an Entire Source in the text

When citing an entire work, there are no specific page numbers to refer to. Therefore it is preferable to refer to the source within the text itself with either the author or the title of the source.

Hartford suggests the Internet provides more distractions than it does information.

Citing Indirect Sources in the text

When an original source is unavailable, then cite the secondhand source – for instance, a lecture in a conference proceedings. When quoting or paraphrasing a quote, write “qtd. in” before the author and pages.

John Murray calls Tim Smith “interesting but egotistical” (qtd. in Jesrani 34).

Citing Classical/Religious Sources in the text

For works such as novels, plays and other classic works, it’s helpful to provide further identifying information along with the page information. Do this by adding a semicolon and then the identifying information following the page number.

(Tolstoy 5; pt. 2, ch. 3).

When citing classic poems and plays, replace page numbers with division numbers (part, book, scene, act). The below refers to book 10 line 5. Bear in mind the divisions and the way they are written can vary by source.

Fear plays a role in Homer’s Odyssey (10.5).

The title of books in the Bible and other famous literary works should be abbreviated.

(New Jerusalem Bible, Gen. 2.6-9).<?p>

Where to Place In-Text Citations

Place parenthetical citations at the end of the sentence you are paraphrasing and quoting. For example: The destruction of the argentine is due to many socioeconomic factors (Taylor 33).

Even when quoting, place the parenthetical citations after the quotations.

“Mamma always said stupid is as stupid does” (Gump 89).

Placing In-text Citations After Direct Quotes

When directly quoting a source, place the parenthetical citation after the quote.

Sanders explains that economic woes are due to “the mortgage crisis and poor risk assessment” (20).

Long Quotes

When quoting four lines or more, indent every line you are quoting by one inch (or 10 spaces) and do not use quotes.

Example:

The use of nuclear weapons in today’s society is strikingly alarming. Though the United States is the only country to employ it in the past, they are at the same time the country that condemns its use the most. While this may seem hypocritical, is it the most proper action for the United States to make as the global leader (Taparia 9).

Why We Use In-Text Citations

Researchers place brief parenthetical descriptions to acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the last name of the author and the specific page numbers of the source. If such information is already given in the body of the sentence, then exclude it from the parenthetical citation.

Citing Sources in MLA 8

Ready to start citing? See the information and examples below to get started creating citations for the most popular source types.

*Please note that these are only some of the ways you can cite sources in MLA 8. If you need further assistance, consult the MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition, or ask your teacher or librarian.

How to Cite a Print Book:

Book – A written work or composition that has been published – typically printed on pages bound together.

Much of the information needed to cite a book can be located on the title page:

Formula:

Author’s Last name, First name. Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s).

Examples:

Roth, Veronica. Divergent. Katherine Tegen Books, 2011.

Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children. St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22.

Matthews, Graham, et al. Disaster Management in Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Ashgate, 2009.

How to Cite a Book Chapter:

Formula:

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of chapter or section.” Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s).

Example:

Montrose, Louis. “Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queen’s Two Bodies.” The Body of the Queen: Gender and Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp. 61-87.

How to Cite an E-book Found Online:

Formula:

Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Title of the web site or database, URL.

Examples:

Austen, Jane, and Seth Grahame-Smith. Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=x5xPaPeZzmUC&lpg=PP1&dq=zombies&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=zombies&f=false.

Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Gold Bug.” Short Stories for English Courses, Edited by Rosa M.R. Mikels, 2004. Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5403/pg5403-images.html.

How to Cite an E-book on a Device:

Formula:

Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, Name of e-reader device, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s).

Example:

Doer, Anthony. All the Light We Cannot See. Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014.

For more info click here.

How to Cite a Website:

Formula:

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.

Example:

Feinberg, Ashley. “What’s the Safest Seat in an Airplane?.” Gizmodo, Gawker Media, 3 Aug. 2016, www.gizmodo.com/the-safest-seat.

Click here for more on websites.

How to Cite a Website with no author:

Formula:

“Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.

Example:

“Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts

How to Cite a Website with No Webpage Title:

Formula:

Webpage Description. Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.

Example:

General Information on the New York Mets. NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm.

How to Cite a Journal Article Found on a Database:

Journal – A periodical published by a special group or professional organization. Often focused around a particular area of study or interest. Can be scholarly in nature (featuring peer-reviewed articles), or popular (such as trade publications).

*Note: Online databases provide access to thousands of journal articles. It is important to identify the database name when citing a journal article found through a database.

Formula:

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the article.” Title of the journal, First name Last name of any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers. Title of the database, URL or DOI.

Example:

Brian, Real, et al. “Rural Public Libraries and Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges.” Information and Technology Libraries, vol. 33, no. 1, Mar. 2014, pp. 6-24. ProQuest, ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/1512388143?accountid=35635.

How to Cite a Journal Article Found in Print:

Formula:

Author’s Last name, First name ” Title of the article.” Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pages.

Example:

Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu.” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

How to Cite an Essay:

Follow the formula for citing a book. Cite the author of the essay, the name of the essay, the name of the collection, the editor of the collection, the publication information, and the page number(s) of the essay.

How to Cite an Image from a Website:

If there is no title available for the image, include a brief description of the image instead.

Formula:

Creator’s Last name, First name. “Title of the digital image.” Title of the website, First name Last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.

Examples:

Vasquez, Gary A. Photograph of Coach K with Team USA. NBC Olympics, USA Today Sports, 5 Aug. 2016, www.nbcolympics.com/news/rio-olympics-coach-ks-toughest-test-or-lasting-legacy.

Gilpin, Laura. “Terraced Houses, Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico.” Library of Congress, Reproduction no. LC-USZ62-102170, 1939, www.loc.gov/pictures/item/90716883/.

How to Cite a Photograph in a Book:

Formula:

Photographer Last, First M. Photograph Title. Circa Date Taken, Location/Museum. Book Title, by Author First Name Last Name, Publisher, Year Published, page number(s).

Example:

Bennett, Peter. East Village. Circa 1983, Museum of Modern Art. New York City: A Photogenic Portrait, by Laura Sheppard, Twin Lights, 2004, p. 8.

How to Cite a Photograph from a Database:

Formula:

Photographer Last, First M. Photograph Title. Circa Year Created, Location/Museum. Database Title, URL.

Example:

Freed, Leonard. Holidaymaker Stuck in Traffic Jam. Circa 1965. ARTstor, www.artstor.org.

How to Cite a Newspaper Article in Print:

Formula:

Last, First M. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title [City], Date Month Year Published, Page(s).

Example:

Bowman, Lee. “Redistricting Push Puts a Lot on Line.” Sun-Sentinel [Fort Lauderdale], 7 Mar. 1990, p. A4.

How to Cite a Newspaper Article Found Online:

Formula:

Last, First M. “Article Title.” Website Title. Website Publisher, Date Month Year Published.

Example:

Jensen, Elizabeth. “Sesame Workshop Tackles Literacy With Technology.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 19 Oct. 2014.

How to Cite a Magazine Article in Print:

Formula:

Last, First M. “Article Title.” Magazine Title, Date Month Year Published, Page(s).

Example:

Rothbart, Davy. “How I Caught up with Dad.” Men’s Health, Oct. 2008, pp. 108-13.

How to Cite a Magazine Article Found Online:

Formula:

Last, First M. “Article Title.” Magazine Title, Date Month Year Published, URL.

Example:

Laurent, Olivier. “See What Undocumented Immigrants Carry Across the Border.” TIME Magazine, 30 Jan. 2015, www.time.com/364789/undocumented-immigrants.

How to Cite a Movie:

Formula:

Film Title. Contributors (these can be directors, producers, performers, etc). Studio/Distributor, year released.

Example:

Little Miss Sunshine. Directed by Martin Scorsese, performed by Robert DeNiro and Harvey Keitel. Warner Brothers, 1973.

How to Cite a TV Show Episode:

Formula:

“Episode Title.” Contributors (these can be directors, producers, performers, etc.), Show Title, Network/Channel, Air Date.

Example:

“Bass Player Wanted.” Narrated by Bob Saget, directed by Pamela Fryman, How I Met Your Mother, CBS, 16 Dec. 2013.

How to Cite Content from a Streaming Service (Netflix, Hulu, Amazon prime etc.):

Formula:

Title of the film or video. Role of contributors and their First name Last name, Publication date. Service Name, url.

Example:

Kindergarten Cop. Directed by Ivan Reitman, performance by Arnold Schwarzenegger, Universal Pictures, 21 Dec. 1990. Amazon Prime, www.amazon.com/Kindergarten-Cop-Arnold-Schwarzenegger/dp/B001VLLES4.

How to Cite a YouTube Video:

Formula:

Last name, First name of the creator. “Title of the film or video.” Title of the website, role of contributors and their First name Last name, Publication date, URL.

Example:

RotoBaller. “RotoBaller MLB: Top Fantasy Baseball Catcher Dynasty League Prospects for 2016.” YouTube, commentary by Raphael Rabe, 27 Mar. 2016, youtu.be/gK645_7TA6c.

How to Cite a Blog Post:

Formula:

Last, First. “Article Title.” Website/Blog Title. Website Publisher, Day Month Year Published, URL.

Example:

Shaw, Julia. “The Memory of Illusion.” Mind Guest Blog, Scientific American Blogs, 13 June 2016, blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/the-memory.

How to Cite a Podcast:

Formula:

Host’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Podcast Episode.” Title of Overall Podcast, Episode Number if Given, Web Site Hosting If Different From Podcast Title, Day Month Year of Episode, URL of episode.

Example:

Orton, Tyler, and Patrick Blennerhassett. “Lessons From the Brexit.” BIV Podcast, Episode 18, Business Vancouver, 28 June 2016, www.biv.com/article/2016/6/biv-podcast-episode-18-lessons-brexit/.

How to Cite a Tweet:

Formula:

Twitter Handle (First Name Last Name if Known). “The entire tweet word-for-word.” Twitter, Day Month Year of Tweet, Time of Tweet, URL.

Example:

@jtimberlake (Justin Timberlake). “USA! USA!!.” Twitter, 16 June 2014, 8:05 PM. www.twitter.com/jtimberlake/status/64780730286358528lang=en.

How to Cite a Facebook Post:

Formula:

Author Last Name, First Name or Account Name. Description of Post. Facebook, Day Month Year of Post, Time of Post, URL.

Example:

Rick Mercer Report. Spread the Net Challenge Winners 2016. Facebook, 23 Mar. 2016, 9:00 a.m., www.facebook.com/rickmercerreport.

How to Cite an Email:

Formula:

Email sender’s Last name, First name. “Email subject.” Received by Recipients Name, date sent.

Example:

Olsen, Mary. “Re: Statistics from Student Population.” Received by Jonas Conner, 15 Mar. 2015.

How to Cite a Music Album:

Formula:

Artist/Group Name. Album Title. Studio/Record Label, Year Released.

Example:

Foo Fighters. In Your Honor. RCA, 2005

How to Cite a Song:

Formula:

Artist/Group Name. “Song Title.” Album Title, Studio/Record Label, Year Released.

Example:

Presley, Elvis. “Jailhouse Rock.” Essential Elvis Presley, BMG, 2007.

How to Cite Sheet Music/Scores:

Formula:

Composer Last Name, Composer First Name. Title of score. Date of composition. Publisher, Date of Publication.

Example:

Handel, G. F. Trio Sonata No. 1. 1733. Southern Music, 1989.

How to Cite a Lecture or Speech:

Formula:

Last Name, First Name. “Presentation Title.” Meeting/Event. Venue, City. Date Conducted.

Example:

Pausch, Randy. “Really Achieving Your Childhood Dreams.” Journeys. Carnegie Mellon University. McConomy Auditorium, Pittsburgh. 18 Sept. 2007.

How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation:

Formula:

Author’s Last Name, First Name. Paper Title. Dissertation or thesis, Publisher [usually a college or university], Year published.

Example:

Wilson, Peggy Lynn. Pedagogical Practices in the Teaching of English Language in Secondary Public Schools in Parker County. Dissertation. University of Maryland, 2011.

How to Cite Unpublished Conference Proceedings:

Include the name of the entire proceedings, and if there is a specific presentation or paper being cited, include this information as well. You also want to include conference information (name of conference, date, and location) if not already stated in the name of the proceedings.

Because the conference proceedings / paper is unpublished, do not include any publication information, but instead a description of the type of document and the year it was published. Additionally, as it is important to describe where the document can be found since there is no formal publisher, you should include the location of the document. Like all citations in a works cited, try to incorporate as much information as you can find.

Formula:

Contributor name(s). Proceedings of the Conference Name, Location, Date. Name of  Publisher, Year.

Example:

Balakian, Anna, and James J. Wilhelm, editors. Proceedings of the Xth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association, New York, NY, 1982. Garland, 1985.

 


 

Article in an encyclopedia with an authorPlease note that all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short, single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you.

Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put a hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, but indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2″ (1.25 cm) from the left margin.

In your Bibliography, Works Cited, or References page, you must include all of the above MLA parenthetical citation.

When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.

Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook.

1. Book with one author or editor:

Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist.
Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005.

Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History. New York: Schocken, 2002.

Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal
and Still Killing Us. N.p.: Rodale, 2003.
N.p. = No place of publication indicated.
Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from
4000 BC to the Present. Vercelli: White Star, 2004.

Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix. New York:
Hyperion, 2005.

Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie & Video Guide 2002 Edition. New York: New American, 2001.

Meidenbauer, Jörg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times.
Lisse: Rebo, 2004.

Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel. Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001.

Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. New York: Scholastic, 1999.

—. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000.

Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of
Paul O’Neill. New York: Simon, 2004.

If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work.

Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay.

(Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses)

Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses. New York: Norton, 1999.

(Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion)

Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion. New York: Oxford UP, 1986.

(Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred)

Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred. London: Harper, 1994.

(Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart)

Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart. New York: Norton, 1995.

(Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars)

Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars. New York: Norton, 1998.

2. Book with two authors or editors:

Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International
Environment of Business. 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002.

Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey
of Spirit. Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal
Jubilee. New York: Rizzoli, 1999.

Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy
of Pierre Elliott Trudeau. Toronto: Random, 1998.

Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed.
2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005.

Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.

Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life. New York: Knopf, 2005.

Book prepared for publication by two editors:

Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.
Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington
Square, 1992.

3. Book with three authors or editors:

Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special
Forces. New York: Putnam, 2002.

Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for College
Students. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005.

Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go:
Germany 1998. New York: St. Martin’s, 1998.

Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815.
9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002.

Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: 
A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature. Vancouver: Greystone, 2002.

4. Book with more than three authors or editors:

You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae, meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named.

Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner.
Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. New York: Perigee, 2003.
or,
Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. New York:
Perigee, 2003.

Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures.
Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000.

Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian
Facts and Dates. 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005.
or,
Pound, Richard W., et al., eds.  Canadian Facts and Dates. 3rd ed. Markham, ON:
2005.

Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary
Series for ESL. Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989.

5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors:

McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous:
A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions
from 1256 A.D. to the Present. New York: Barnes, 1994.

O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger:
True Stories of Trouble and Survival. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999.

Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa.
Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997.

Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by.

6. Book with no author or editor stated:

Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events
That Shaped Our Identity. Toronto: Key, 1999.

Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step. Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001.

The Movie Book. London: Phaidon, 1999.

With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913. Photographs of
Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004.

7. Book with one author, translated by another:

Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography. Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber.
New York: Metropolitan, 1998.

8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers:

Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man?
3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Newell.
New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7.

Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival.
Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly.
San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. 211-22.

9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated:

“Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1997 ed.

“Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places. 2000 ed.

10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author:

If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication.

Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed.

Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Ed. D.L. Birchfield.
11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997.

11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated:

“100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75.

“Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6.

“E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4.

“McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.”
National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18.

“Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star
25 Nov. 2004: A18.

“Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6.

12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors:

Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive.
Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full.
Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March.  If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005.

Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed.

Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you.

An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently:

Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in
Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265.

The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end.

Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49.

Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London]
25 Jan. 2001: 36.

Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly
Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+.

Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+.

Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+.

Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News
15 Jan. 2006: A6.

Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88.

Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News
10 Oct. 2004: A1-2.

Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Town & Country Travel
Fall 2004: 102-111.

Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.”
Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45.

Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb.
2003: 18-22.

Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean
Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+.

Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2.

Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18.

Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+.

Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud,
Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.
or use “et al.”:
Wolanski, Eric, et al.  “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist
Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.

13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series):

Suggested citation example from SIRS:
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.”
Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK. (Boca Raton, FL:
Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20.
Example in MLA style:
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.”
Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work. Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5.
Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20.

14. Advertisement:

Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited.
Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. 7 Feb. 2005 <http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx>.

GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92.

IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 29 Oct. 2002: B7.

Toyota. Advertisement. Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30.

15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated:

Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring. Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997.

16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author:

Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software. Calgary, AB:
Springbank, 1994.

17. Book, movie or film review:

May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler).
Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The
Dark Lady of DNA, by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66.

Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase, by Karen Levine.
Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36.

Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The 
Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder.
Discover Nov. 2002: 77.

Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn
Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37.

Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry
Finn, by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea,
1986, 31-44.

Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within, comp.
and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998:
629-30.

Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov,
Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003, by Emma Gilligan.
New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33.

Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida, dir. Julie Taymor. National
Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+.

Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated
Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20.

Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams, by
Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+.

18. CD-ROM, DVD:

A Place in the Sun. Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001.

Encarta 2004 Reference Library. CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003.

Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32. Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003.

LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald
7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42.

Links 2003: Championship Courses. CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002.

YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition, 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal:
Tele-Direct, 1998.

19. Computer service – e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.:

Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times,
Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065
197653951002.

20. Definition from a dictionary:

When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary.
“Mug.” Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the
English Language. Canadian ed. 1988.

21. Film, Movie:

Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. You may add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl.
Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.

Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book
by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005.

Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf.
Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.

Monster-in-Law. Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein,
Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005.

Nanny McPhee. Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Christianna
Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson,
Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005.

One Hour Photo. Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod. Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler,
and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002.

Titanic. Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth
Century Fox and Paramount, 1997.

The Tuxedo. Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder.
Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002.

22. Government publication:

Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication, underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date.
Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength:
Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and
Government Services Canada, 2000.

United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight –
Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human
Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures. Washington:
GPO, 2000.
Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents.

In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers.

Example:

United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996.
Cite simply as:
Cong. Rec. 31 July 1996: 104-193.

For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed.

23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources:

a. Internet citation for an advertisement

b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated

c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia

d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated

e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal

f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.

g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserver, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail

h. Internet citation for an online government publication

i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor

j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site

k. Internet citation for a software download

l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor

m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another
Basic components of an Internet citation:
1) Author.

2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks.

3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project, underlined.

4) Editor of Project.

5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious.

6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified.

7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site.

8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site).

9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets.

Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons.
Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL.

If the URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities. Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock. Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential.

a. Internet citation for an advertisement:

IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003 <http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ibm.htm>.

TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 <http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm>.

b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated:

Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online.
24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html>.

Clifford, Erin. “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/neuro/review/>.

Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada. Ottawa:
Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf>.

Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. 2001.
National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/
2001/02/0209_mandela.html>.

Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips
Newsletter. Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.netmechanic.com/
news/vol6/html_no20.htm>.
If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.:
Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post. 8 May 2002.
SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004
<http://www.sirs.com>.

Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out page numbers if not indicated in the source.

Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News. 12 Jan. 2003.
eLibrary Canada.  Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006.
<http://elibrary.bigchalk.com/ce/canada>.

Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school.

Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News. 12 Jan. 2003.
eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. 2006. <http://www.proquestk12.com>.

c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia:

Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761558397/Ho_Chi_Minh.html>.

“Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
9 Oct. 2005 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629>.

“Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2005.  Encyclopædia Britannica.
8 Oct. 2005  <http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567>.

d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated:

“Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education.7 June 2003.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm>.

“Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com. 8 Dec. 2003.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html>.

e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal:

Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in
Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003
<http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1540-4560.00260>.

f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.:

“Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online. 1993-2003.
Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 <http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/
political/Afghan_etc.htm>.

Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts.
2000. 7 June 2003 <http://www.bluemountain.com/
display.pd?path=35041&bfrom=1&prodnum=3032062&>.

Lee, Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com. Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://www.journalismjobs.com/lawrence_lee.cfm>.

Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com.
25 Apr. 2004 <http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710&RFID=814547>.

“Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State
Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://us.history.wisc.edu/
hist102/photos/html/1023.html>.

g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail:

Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998.  EBSCOhost Mailer.
E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2003.

Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003.

“NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. 8 Sept. 2005
LII Team <[email protected]>.

PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith.
10 Oct. 2005.

h. Internet citation for an online government publication:

Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board
Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector.
6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/
oagtbs_e.asp>.

United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights.
29 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/
charters_of_freedom/bill_of_rights/bill_of_rights.html>.

i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor:

Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses,
Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://www.opinionjournal.com/la/responses.html?article_id=110003579>.

Seaside Harry. “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online
posting. 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298&highlight=>.

j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site:

The MAD Scientist Network. 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U
School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. <http://www.madsci.org>.

O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002. U of St. Andrews,
Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/
Mathematicians/Wilkins.html>.

Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty
Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002.
13 Apr. 2006 <http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/>.

Savill, R. Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page. 23 Oct. 2000.
12 Apr. 2006 <http://www.btinternet.com/~dreklind/threetwo/Biograph.htm>.

Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch.
10 Apr. 2006 <http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html>.

Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?”
Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and
Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?
Page=countries&Area=israel&ID=IA1699>.

k. Internet citation for a software download:

It is not essential to include the file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor.
RAMeSize. Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004
<http://www.pcworld.com/downloads/file_download.asp?fid=7605>.

l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor:

Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of
Abraham Lincoln. Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP,
1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. 2005 <http://showcase.netins.net/
web/creative/lincoln/speeches/gettysburg.htm>.

m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another:

Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions & Enchiridion. Trans. and ed.
Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993.
10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/
confessions_enchiridion.txt>.

24. Interview:

Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006
<http://www.pm.gov.uk/output/Page3797.asp>.

Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://www.time.com/time/europe/magazine/2003/0224/cover/interview.html>.

Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006.

Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006.

Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.

25. Lecture:

State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date.

Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003.

26. Letter, editorial:

An editorial:
Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug. 2002: 4.
Letter to the Editor:
Lange, Rick. “U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo
News 23 Jan. 2005: I5.

Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16.

Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter.
New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37.
Reply to a letter to the Editor:
Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1.
A letter you received from John Smith:
Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005.
Published letter in a collection:
Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885.
Letter 850318 of Mark Twain. Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005
<http://www.boondocksnet.com/twaintexts/letters/letter850318.html>.

27. Map or Chart:

Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map.
2004 Andex Chart. Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004.

Canada. Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003.

“Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico. Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005.

28. Musical composition:

Components:
1) Name of composer.
2) Title of ballet, music piece or opera, underlined,
3) Form, number and key not underlined.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Für Elise.

Strauss, Richard. Träumerei, op. 9, no. 4.
Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underlined title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication.
Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1. New York: Fischer, 1918.

Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene. 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950.

Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye. London: Paxton, 1953.

Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65. 1819. London: Harris, 1933.

29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form

Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. 3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located.
Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family. 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection,
Kleinburg, ON.

Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss. 1909. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse
Cemetery, Paris.

The Great Sphinx. [c. 2500 BC]. Giza.

Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque. 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris.

Raphael. The School of Athens. 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace,
Rome.

Rude, François. La Marseillaise. 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underlined title of artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is housed, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number.
Abell, Sam. Japan. 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones.
By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999.
232.

Carr, Emily. A Haida Village. [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection,
Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection. By Jean Blodgett,
et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134.

Käsebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal. [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society,
Bath. A Basic History of Art. By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412.

Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda). [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum,
Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum. New York:
Abbeville, 1979. 31.

Michelangelo. David. 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great
Masters. By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere.  New York:
Park Lane, 1986. 226.

Sullivan, Louis. Wainright Building. 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art.
By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice,
1991. 408.

Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask. Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Náprstek
Museum, Prague. The World of Masks. By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dušan
Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207.

Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the Baptist. 1742-51. São Roque,
Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting. Cologne:
Könemann, 1998. 118.
Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date of photograph taken.
War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author.
22 Mar. 2003.

Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005.

30. Patent:

Components:
1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s).
2) Title of patent.
3) Issuing country and patent number.
4) Date patent was issued.
Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachführung eines Stereo-Laparoskope
in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996.

“Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813.
27 Sept. 1988.

Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091.
26 Oct. 1999.

31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)

Disney’s The Lion King. By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor.
Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre,
Toronto. 9 June 2002.

The Hobbit. By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael
Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON.
20 Apr. 2002.

The Nutcracker. By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James
Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of
Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999.

Phantom of the Opera. By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart.
Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre,
Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998.

The Shanghai Acrobats. By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre,
Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005.

32. Radio, television:

Components:
1) Title of episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate.
2) Title of program, underlined.
3) Title of series.
4) Name of network.
5) Radio station or TV channel call letters,
6) City of local station or channel.
7) Broadcast date.
The CFRB Morning Show. By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003.

Law and Order. Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network.
WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002.

“New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News. WBEN, Buffalo.
13 Nov. 2002.

“New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters,
New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.

“The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner.
The Fifth Estate. CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002.

“U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side.
WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.

33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape:

Components:
1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor.
2) Title of song (in quotation marks).
3) Title of recording (underlined).
4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.).
5) Edition, release, or version.
6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet.
Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life. Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by
The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC.
Zomba, 1999.

Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic. CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor
Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power
Plant Recording Studio, n.d.
or,
Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic. CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor
Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power
Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997].
Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.”
McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back. LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and
Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by Ross Pallone.

34. Software on floppy disk

ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E. Diskette. Vers. 1.0.
IBM, 1998.

35. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette

Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights. Cassette
tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995.

Ginger. Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out. Vancouver:
Nettwerk, 1994.

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Dir. Alfonso Cuarón. Based on novel
by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson.
DVD. Warner, 2004.

Jane Austen’s Emma. Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York:
New Video Group, 1996.

Kicking & Screaming. Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick.
Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005.

The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants. Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by
Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively,
and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005.

Super Searching the Web. Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect,
1997.

The Wizard of Oz. Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum.
Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley,
Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins.
MGM, 1939. VHS. Warner, 1999.

36.Unpublished dissertations, theses

State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year.
Elmendorf, James. “The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA thesis. Hampshire College, 1995.

Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss. Columbia U, 1962.
Underline title if dissertation is published:
Chan, Marjorie K.M. Fuzhou Phonology: A Non-Linear Analysis of Tone and Stress. Diss. U of
Washington, 1985.

Gregory, T.R. The C-Value Enigma. PhD thesis. U. of Guelph, ON, 2002.

Recommended Reading – What is a Annotated Bibliography?

CONTENTS

  1. Book with one author or editor
  2. Book with two authors or editors
  3. Book with three authors or editors
  4. Book with more than three authors or editors
  5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors
  6. Book with no author or editor stated
  7. Book with one author, translated by another
  8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers
  9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated
  10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author
  11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or or newspaper with no author stated
  12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors
  13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series)
  14. Advertisement
  15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated
  16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author
  17. Book, movie or film review
  18. CD-ROM, DVD
  19. Computer service, e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.
  20. Definition from a dictionary
  21. Film, movie
  22. Government publication
  23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources
  24. Interview
  25. Lecture
  26. Letter, editorial
  27. Map, chart
  28. Musical composition
  29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form
  30. Patent
  31. Performance (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
  32. Radio, Television
  33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape
  34. Software on floppy disk
  35. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette
  36. Unpublished dissertations, theses

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